Mistakes are part of life, but try not to make them part of your tax return. One misstep could hold up your tax return — maybe even your refund — for weeks or months, and you might even end up on the hook for interest and penalties. Here are 11 tax mistakes you definitely want to avoid:
Never blow off the April tax filing deadline. If you have to file after the deadline and are worried about what happens when you file taxes late, know that the IRS is usually fine with that. Just request an extension by filing Form 4868before the April deadline and you can get more time.
The alternative — doing nothing — opens you up to a 5% penalty on the amount due for every month or partial month your return is late. The maximum penalty is 25% of the amount due.
You’ll also owe interest on taxes outstanding after the April deadline, even if you get an extension. And the IRS may hit you with a late-payment penalty, normally 0.5% per month on the outstanding tax not paid by the April deadline. Again, the maximum penalty is 25%.
The IRS uses Social Security numbers to cross-reference information it receives from you with information it receives about you from your employer, bank or other entities. Transposing a digit in your Social Security number screws that up, which means the IRS could reject your return. So, be sure you enter every Social Security number on your tax return exactly as it appears on the Social Security card.
This mistake is easy to make if you don’t use your full legal name every day. It creates a problem because your name on any refund check from the IRS will be spelled the way it appears on your tax return, which could raise a flag at your bank. Be sure to spell the names of everyone on your return just as they appear on their Social Security cards, too. If you’ve changed your name, tell the Social Security Administration online or call 800-772-1213. You can also call the IRS at 800-829-1040 to correct the spelling of your name over the phone.
The IRS caught more than 2 million math errors in 2014, and in many cases there was more than one math error per return. These mistakes can become more likely if you’re preparing a paper return by hand. Avoid ruining your refund-fueled daydreams by using tax software or by hiring a qualified tax preparer.
If you’re getting a refund, you’ll probably get it much faster if you choose the direct deposit option. That way it’ll go right into your bank account — unless you give the IRS the wrong account number or routing number.
An unsigned return is an invalid return in the eyes of the IRS. If you did everything else right, including sending in your payment, the IRS may not ding you for missing the filing deadline because of a missing signature, but you’ll likely need to respond with a signed copy to get things moving again. And don’t forget: Anyone you paid to prepare your return has to sign and provide their IRS Preparer Tax Identification Number. If you’re filing jointly, your spouse has to sign, too.
If you’re filling out a paper return — and more people than you may think still do that — be sure you mail it to the right processing center. Often, returns that include payments go to a different place from returns that don’t have payments. Send it to the wrong center and you’re asking for a processing delay. You can find out here where your return should go. Or you can save yourself the headache and e-file.
» MORE: Learn more about e-filing
If you’re mailing a paper return to the IRS, don’t just shove your 1040 in the envelope and call it a day. You need to attach all required tax forms, supporting schedules and documents, such as your Schedule A if you’re itemizing and your Schedule D if you’re reporting capital gains and losses. If you forget the backup, you might get a letter from the IRS saying your tax credits or refund are on hold until you fork over the documents. If you’re using software and filing electronically, this part is easier.
» MORE: The best tax software
If you owe, make the check out to the U.S. Treasury — not “Uncle Sam,” “International Rat Society” or “Bastards.” The IRS probably won’t cash it, and then — surprise! — your payment may be late and you’ll be hit with a penalty. Alternatively, you can pay online via IRS Direct Pay or use the electronic payment options in your tax software.
Were you trying to save 49 cents by using one instead of two stamps on that big, extra-stuffed envelope? Guess what? The U.S. Postal Service will send it back, possibly making your return late, which could cost you far more than 49 cents in interest and penalties. Again, avoid this nightmare by e-filing or at least confirming postage requirements with the Postal Service.
If you’ve made a mistake on your return, fix it — and fix it fast. Never ignore the IRS. To amend your return, get your hands on a Form 1040X, fill it out to fix your error, and mail it in (you can’t file a 1040X electronically). If the changes involve other schedules or forms, you’ll need to attach them. And if the correction means you owe more taxes, beware: The IRS will assess interest and penalties from the original due date of those taxes.
A lot of things can go wrong at tax time, but like all mistakes in life, try to learn from them. Take the time to understand your tax situation — small changes can save big money, after all.
» MORE: Learn more about taxes
Tina Orem is a staff writer at NerdWallet, a personal finance website. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.