The best way to curb global warming is to put a price on climate-warming carbon dioxide emissions, according to a trio of reports from the U.S. National Academy of Sciences released yesterday.


In blunt language, the academy said: “A carbon-pricing system is the most cost-effective way to reduce emissions. Either cap-and-trade, a system of taxing emissions, or a combination of the two could provide the needed incentives.”


In one report on the science of climate change, academy experts discounted doubts about climate warming after revelation of embarrassing e-mails by scientists provided fodder for critics.


“Climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for — and in many cases is already affecting — a broad range of human and natural systems,” the reports concluded.