In 1923, Dr. Frederick Banting and Dr. J.J.R. Macleod of the
University of Toronto were awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine for
their discovery of the hormone insulin, and became the first Canadians
to win a Nobel. Macleod supervised the research, but Banting was
considered the principal discoverer because his idea launched the
research, involving Charles Best and J.B. Collip. Insulin injections
have saved and improved the lives of millions of diabetics.
Also on this date:
1147, the armies of the Second Crusade were destroyed by the Saracens
at Dorylaeum in modern Turkey. The Crusaders went on with fruitless
campaigns against Damascus, Syria.
In 1400, Geoffrey Chaucer, author of “The Canterbury Tales,” died in London.
1415, an English army under Henry V defeated a far stronger French
force at Agincourt, France. The victory secured popular support in
England for future military ventures in France, and became one of the
proudest moments of English military history.
1854, “The Charge of the Light Brigade,” made famous by the Alfred Lord
Tennyson poem, took place during the Crimean War. A confused order
during the battle of Balaklava sent the English brigade of 600 men and
horses directly into a stronghold of the Russian army. About 40 per
cent of the brigade was lost.
In 1881, Pablo Picasso was born in Malaga, Spain. He died on April 8, 1973.
In 1917, the Russian Revolution began.
1918, the Canadian Pacific steamship “Princess Sophia” sank in a
snowstorm at Lynn Canal while sailing to Vancouver from Alaska. There
were no survivors and it is estimated to have taken over 350 lives.
In 1920, prohibition was approved in Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan and Alberta.
1921, Franklin Small and a group of dissatisfied members of the
Pentecostal Assemblies of Canada obtained a Dominion charter to
establish the Apostolic Church of Pentecost of Canada. In 1953, this
group merged with the Evangelical Churches of Pentecost, whose major
congregations are located in the Prairie provinces.
In 1938, Japanese forces captured Hankow, China.
In 1939, Maurice Duplessis and his Union Nationale government were defeated by the Liberals in a Quebec provincial election.
In 1941, the Germans conquered Kharkov, Ukraine.
In 1951, Montreal became the first Canadian city to reach a population of more than one-million.
In 1958, an explosion in Ottawa's business district injured 30 people and caused $2 million in damage.
In 1962, American author John Steinbeck was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature.
1971, the UN General Assembly voted 76 to 35 with 17 abstentions to
seat Peoples Republic of China and expel Taiwan (Nationalist China),
ending a 22-year battle over China's UN representation.
the Canadian Union of Postal Workers ended a national strike that began
began Oct. 12 when postal workers in Charlottetown and Montreal walked
off the job.
In 1982, the House of Commons passed the bill to
officially rename the July 1st holiday as Canada Day. The Senate passed
legislation the next day.
In 1983, Popsicle inventor Frank
Epperson died at 89. Epperson was only 11 when he invented the
“Epsicle” in 1905 by leaving his fruit-flavoured punch outside with a
stir stick in it. The drink froze to the stick and tasted good.
Epperson applied for a patent 18 years later -- in 1923 -- for the
Epsicle ice pop, which his children re-named the Popsicle.
1983, U.S. Marines and Rangers, assisted by soldiers from six Caribbean
countries, invaded Grenada at the order of President Ronald Reagan, who
said the action was needed to protect American citizens.
1993, Jean Chretien's Liberals ended nine years of Conservative rule in
Ottawa by winning a majority in a federal election. The Tories, under
recently-elected leader Kim Campbell, were all but wiped off the
federal political map, going from 154 Commons seats to only two. The
separatist Bloc Quebecois became the Official Opposition with 54 seats,
two more than the Reform party. Chretien's Liberals won repeat
majorities in 1997 and 2000.
In 1994, Susan Smith of Union,
S.C., claimed that a black carjacker had driven off with her two young
sons. Smith later confessed to drowning the children in John D. Long
Lake, and was convicted of murder.
In 1995, in a referendum of
their own, Crees of northern Quebec voted 96.3 per cent to stay with
Canada if Quebecers voted “Yes” to independence in the Oct. 30th
referendum. The Cree argued that if Quebecers as a distinct people
could choose to separate from Canada, then the Cree as a distinct
people could choose to stay.
In 1997, a Canadian businessman
paid $400,000 in an auction to ensure the war medals belonging to Dr.
John McCrae who wrote “In Flanders Fields,” remained in Canada.
1999, two-time U.S. Open golf champion Payne Stewart -- known for
wearing plus-four knickers on the PGA Tour -- and five others were
killed when their Learjet flew uncontrolled for four hours before
crashing in South Dakota. He was 42.
In 2002, Kenyan President Daniel arap Moi officially announced the end of his 24-year rule.
2004, the Institute for Breast Cancer Research at Princess Margaret
Hospital in Toronto received a $25-million gift from the heirs of late
newspaper magnate Roy Thomson. At the time, it was the largest private
gift to cancer research in Canadian history.
2005, Ontario Premier Dalton McGuinty ordered the evacuation of more
than half the 1,900 residents of the northern reserve of Kashechewan
plagued with contaminated drinking water.
In 2007, Mattel
recalled more than 55,000 toys because of excessive levels of lead
paint. It had been the company's fourth recall in six months.
2008, Gerard Damiano, director of the popular pornographic film “Deep
Throat” that lent its name to a Watergate whistleblower, died. He was
80. The movie was a mainstream box-office success and helped launch the
modern hardcore adult-entertainment industry.
In 2009, in the
worst attack in Iraq in more than two years, at least 155 people were
killed and over 500 injured in two suicide bombings in Baghdad.
2010, Canada's Omar Khadr, Guantanamo Bay's youngest and only remaining
western inmate, abruptly withdrew his not guilty plea and entered a
guilty plea to war-crimes charges in the death of a U.S. special forces
soldier in Afghanistan eight years ago. Under the plea agreeement, he
would begin serving his sentence in an American prison, but permitted
to apply for a transfer to Canada after the first year.
Fahim Ahmad, ringleader of the so-called Toronto 18 terrorist group,
was sentenced to 16 years in prison. He had a credit of eight and a
half years for time served and was eligible for parole in
three-and-a-half years. Of the 18 people charged, seven had their
charges dropped or stayed, four were found guilty and seven pleaded
In 2010, Veterans Affairs Minister Jean-Pierre Blackburn
issued a formal apology to Gulf War veteran Sean Bruyea, an outspoken
critic whose confidential psychiatric reports were used in a political
smear campaign. Blackburn also offered fast-tracked mediation for an
out-of-court settlement to Bruyea's $400,000 privacy lawsuit against
the federal government.
In 2010, more than 200 birds died after
they landed on Syncrude Canada's Mildred Lake tailings pond in northern
Alberta, just days after the oil giant agreed to pay more than $3
million in a similar case where 1,600 ducks died in the company's
Aurora tailings pond in 2008.
In 2010, the parents of a boy who
lost his battle with cancer in 1975 donated $30 million to the Hospital
for Sick Children in Toronto. The donation, believed to be the single
largest private gift to pediatric cancer in North America, would
establish the Garron Family Cancer Centre and fund research into
In 2010, right-wing juggernaut Rob Ford was
elected mayor in Toronto, defeating former deputy premier George
Smitherman in a bitter, 10-month race. In Mississauga, 89-year-old
Mayor Hazel McCallion was re-elected for the 12th consecutive term.