In 1995, in the biggest political rally in Canadian history,
thousands of people from across Canada arrived in Montreal to urge
Quebecers to vote “No” in the sovereignty referendum. Days later,
Quebec voters narrowly rejected sovereignty.
Also on this date:
1746, William Tennent, a Scottish Presbyterian pastor and theologian,
obtained a charter for the College of New Jersey, later to be called
Princeton University. He had founded the school 20 years earlier as a
seminary for the gospel ministry.
In 1795, the United States and
Spain signed the Treaty of San Lorenzo (also known as 'Pinckney's
Treaty'), which provided for free navigation of the Mississippi River.
In 1806, Napoleon captured Berlin.
In 1829, a patent for the baby carriage was granted in the United States.
1854, Florence Nightingale began a voyage to an army hospital in the
Crimea, where she brought great respect to the nursing profession.
1856, the Grand Trunk Railway opened its Montreal-to-Toronto line. The
railway had been incorporated to build this key rail link in Eastern
Canada. It was intended to serve all important cities in Quebec and
Ontario and to link up with U.S. rail lines.
In 1858, Theodore Roosevelt, the 28th U.S. president, was born in New York City.
In 1883, Sir John A. Macdonald appealed for financial help for the CPR, which was then almost bankrupt.
In 1904, the first rapid transit subway, the I.R.T., was inaugurated in New York City.
In 1905, after the dissolution of the union between Sweden and Norway, King Oscar II formally abdicated the crown of Norway.
In 1914, author-poet Dylan Thomas was born in Swansea, Wales. He died in 1953.
1918, Canadian aviator Billy Barker won the Victoria Cross during the
First World War. The Dauphin, Man.-native downed four German planes
despite being wounded three times himself. Barker died in a 1930
In 1920, the League of Nations moved its headquarters from London to Geneva.
In 1936, Wallis Simpson was granted a divorce in England. She later married King Edward VIII, who gave up the throne for her.
In 1938, Nazi Germany began the mass deportation of Polish-born Jews.
1938, Du Pont announced it had coined a name for its new synthetic yarn
-- nylon. The first nylon stockings went on sale on May 15th, 1940.
In 1950, Progressive Conservatives voted to end a 10-year coalition with Liberals in Manitoba.
In 1951, cobalt radiation treatment for cancer was used in Canada for the first time in London, Ont.
In 1959, a hurricane killed over 1,000 people in Mexico.
In 1961, the Victoria Rifles of Canada celebrated its centennial. It is the oldest regiment in Montreal.
1968, Canada won its only gold medal of the Mexico City Olympics. Tom
Gayford, Jim Day and Jim Elder took the equestrian team jumping title
on the Games' final day. It was Canada's last Summer Olympic gold for
In 1971, La Presse, the largest French-language daily
in North America, announced the suspension of publication in Montreal.
The paper, with a circulation of 225,000, shut down because of the
threat of increasing violence in a labor dispute. It resumed
publication in February, 1972.
In 1977, Canada's longest
kidnapping ended when Charles Marion was released. Marion, the loans
officer for a credit union in Sherbrooke, Que., spent 83 days in
captivity. He was released when a $50,000 ransom was paid.
1978, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister
Menachem Begin were awarded the Nobel Peace prize for their progress
toward a Middle East accord.
In 1979, Quebec's $15.1-billion James Bay power project opened, becoming the second largest power producer in the world.
1980, Judy LaMarsh, one of Liberal Prime Minister Lester Pearson's more
colourful ministers, died. Also a lawyer, broadcaster and novelist,
LaMarsh was the MP for Niagara Falls for eight years beginning in 1960.
While she was minister of national health and welfare from 1963-65, the
Canada Pension Plan was implemented and Canada's medicare system set
up. LaMarsh also established the Royal Commission on the Status of
In 1981, a Soviet submarine ran aground inside Swedish
waters 15 kilometres from a Swedish naval base. The Swedish government
refused to free the ship until its captain had been interrogated about
In 1982, China announced its population had topped one billion, as counted by more than five million census takers.
1987, South Korean voters overwhelmingly approved a new constitution,
establishing direct presidential elections and other democratic reforms.
1989, the World Series resumed in San Francisco between the Oakland
Athletics and San Francisco Giants after a 10-day break following the
Oct. 17 earthquake. Oakland swept the series 4-0.
In 1992, the
Federal Court of Canada ruled the military's treatment of gays was
unconstitutional. The Defence Department announced the same day that it
would no longer discriminate against gays.
In 1997, Ontario
school teachers began a two-week strike over province's plans to reform
the education system. It was the largest teachers' strike in Canadian history.
1998, Hurricane Mitch cut through the western Caribbean, pummeling
coastal Honduras and Belize; the storm caused several thousand deaths
in Central America in the days that followed.
In 1998, the National Post, Canada's second national newspaper, made its debut.
In 1998, the United Church of Canada apologized to natives who suffered physical and sexual abuse at church-run schools.
1999, the Ontario government passed legislation that same-sex couples
would have the same rights and responsibilities as common-law
In 1999, gunmen seized Armenia's
legislature in the capital of Yerevan in a torrent of automatic-weapons
fire, killing prime minister Vazgen Sarkisian and parliament Speaker
Karen Demirchian and six other politicians.
Saskatchewan Roughriders kicker Paul McCallum set a CFL record with a
62-yard field goal against the visiting Edmonton Eskimos.
2003, suicide bombers struck at the Red Cross headquarters and three
police stations across Baghdad, Iraq, killing at least 34 people and
injuring more than 200.
In 2003, Bank of America Corp. agreed to
buy FleetBoston Financial Corp. in a US$47 billion all-stock deal to
create the second-largest bank in the United States.
the Boston Red Sox won the World Series championship defeating the St.
Louis Cardinals in a four-game sweep. It was the club's first World
Series win since 1918.
In 2005, the deaths of two teenagers in a suburban immigrant community of Paris sparked escalating riots.
2006, Quebec Inuit voted overwhelmingly in favour of a massive land
claim agreement that gave them ownership of 80 per cent of the small
islands in the waters off their northern shore and guaranteed them a
share of offshore resource royalties. The Nunavik Inuit Land Claim
Agreement would also see $86 million transferred to Inuit coffers over
In 2006, the Saskatchewan government dropped its
provincial sales tax two points to five per cent to share the wealth of
its oil and gas boom.
In 2006, former major league pitcher Joe
Niekro, Houston's career leader with 221 wins, died at the age of 61
from a brain aneurysm.
In 2007, Michael Ondaatje won the Governor General's Literary Award for his book “Divisadero,” his fifth G.G. award.
2008, Charles Dubin, a former top judge who was best known for heading
an inquiry into drug use in amateur sport, died. He was 87. Dubin was
appointed to Ontario's top court in 1973 and was tapped to head several
inquiries, most notably the high-profile commission that formed after
sprinter Ben Johnson was stripped of his gold medal for testing
positive for anabolic steroids at the 1988 Seoul Olympics.
In 2009, Paul Beeston was named president and CEO of the Toronto Blue Jays and Rogers Centre for a three-year term.
2009, the federal government announced reforms on federally-regulated
pensions to increase the rainy-day provisions and give greater
guarantees for pensioners.
In 2009, Ontario Premier Dalton
McGuinty announced full-day kindergarten for all four and
five-year-olds despite an unprecedented provincial deficit. The program
would cost $1.5 billion a year once it's fully implemented by 2015.
2009, French billionaire Vincent Bollore announced that his company
would invest $120 million in a battery-producing factory in
Boucherville on Montreal's south shore, to help fuel electric cars, in
a move described as the first of its kind in North America, and just
the second such project in the entire world.
In 2009, Quebec's
former lieutenant-governor Lise Thibault pleaded not guilty to criminal
charges in connection with questionable spending while she was in
office. Thibault, 70, faced six counts of fraud, breach of trust and
use of counterfeit documents after details of her spending habits were
made public two years earlier.
In 2010, former junior hockey
coach and convicted sex offender Graham James surrendered to police at
Toronto's Pearson International Airport and was whisked to Winnipeg,
where he had been wanted on nine charges on the sexual assault of three
victims, including former NHL star Theo Fleury, who has published a
tell-all autobiography alleging that James abused him starting when he
was 14 years old.
In 2010, the B.C. Appeal Court were unanimous
in quashing Ivan Henry's convictions and entering acquittals related to
10 counts involving rapes in Vancouver between May 1981 and June 1982.
Henry had spent 27 years in prison.
In 2010, former Edmonton
Oilers owner Peter Pocklington was sentenced to six months of home
detention for making false statements in his Southern California
bankruptcy case. He also was sentenced to two years of probation. He
pleaded guilty to perjury in May.
In 2010, Environment Canada
issued a winter storm warning as a freak weather bomb muscled its way
across North America from the Dakotas to the Great Lakes with tornadoes
and blizzards. Weather advisories were issued for 31 states and six
provinces. The Saskatchewan-Manitoba border got up to 30 cm of snow,
Manitoba lakes saw storm surges while heavy rains and strong winds
battered Ontario and Quebec.
In 2010, France's parliament
granted final approval to a bill raising the retirement age from 60 to
62, a reform that earlier infuriated the country's powerful unions and
touched off weeks of protests and strikes.