In 1962, the Cuban Missile Crisis ended six days after it began.
U.S. President John F. Kennedy imposed a naval blockade around the
island on Oct. 22. On the 28th, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev
informed the United States that he had ordered the dismantling of
Soviet missile bases in Cuba. Kennedy praised Khrushchev for his
Also on this date:
Roman emperor Constantine defeated the army of Maxentius, a contender
to the throne, at Milvian Bridge, after trusting in a vision he had
seen of the cross inscribed with the words, “In this sign conquer.”
Constantine was converted soon after and became the first Roman emperor
to embrace the Christian faith.
In 1492, Christopher Columbus discovered the island of Cuba on his first voyage to the New World.
In 1636, Harvard University was founded, the first university in the U.S.
In 1726, “Gulliver's Travels” was first published.
In 1790, the Nootka Convention concluded, ending Spain's claim to what is now the Pacific coast of Canada.
1830, Josiah Henson, a U.S. slave, reputed to be the original character
for Uncle Tom in Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel “Uncle Tom's Cabin,”
escaped to Upper Canada. He lived the rest of his life at Dresden,
Ont., where he became the pastor of a church.
In 1858, Rowland Hussey Macy opened his first New York store at Sixth Avenue and 14th Street in Manhattan.
1886, the Statue of Liberty, a gift to the United States from the
people of France, was unveiled. The imposing 46-metre figure of a woman
holding a torch was designed by sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi,
and cost $250,000.
In 1891, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the Manitoba Separate Schools Act was unconstitutional.
1909, English painter Francis Bacon, whose paintings included images of
distorted and sometimes mutilated human figures, was born. He died
April 28, 1992.
In 1914, scientist Jonas Salk, who developed the first polio vaccine, was born. He died in 1995.
1918, Czechoslovakia was formed from parts of the Austro-Hungarian
Empire. It was formally recognized as a new republic by the Treaty of
St Germain. A constitution was established in 1920.
In 1922, following the Fascist seizure of Fiume, Bologna and Milan, Benito Mussolini began his march on Rome.
In 1940, Italy invaded Greece in the Second World War.
In 1954, the RCMP patrol vessel “St. Roch” arrived in Vancouver on its last voyage. The ship was transferred to a museum.
In 1954, American author Ernest Hemingway was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature.
1958, Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, cardinal and patriarch of Venice, was
elected pope, taking the name John XXIII. As pope, he stressed the
pastoral duties of church officials and promoted social reforms. He
also convened a influential council, Vatican II, that studied how to
renew and reform the Roman Catholic Church.
In 1965, Pope Paul the Sixth issued a decree absolving Jews of collective guilt for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
In 1971, Britain's House of Commons approved entry into the European Common Market.
1977, Solicitor General Francis Fox told the House of Commons that the
RCMP had entered a Montreal office of the Parti Quebecois in 1973,
without a warrant, to copy party membership lists. The revelation was
one of several incidents of RCMP activities that led to a Commons
debate Nov. 15 on the force's security service.
In 1982, Spain's
Socialist Workers Party won a solid majority in parliamentary
elections. Felipe Gonzalez became the country's first socialist premier
since General Francisco Franco's fascists won the civil war of the
In 1988, the French government ordered pharmaceutical
company Groupe Roussel Uclaf to resume distribution of the
abortion-inducing drug known as “RU 486.” The company had withdrawn the
drug two days earlier after protests from anti-abortion groups.
In 1991, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney withdrew his name from candidacy for the post of UN secretary general.
In 1995, more than 300 people died in a subway train fire in a tunnel in central Baku, Azerbaijan.
1998, Winnipeg became the first major Canadian city to elect an openly
gay mayor. Glen Murray defeated his major opponent by more than 10,000
votes. Some church leaders had urged their congregations to cast a
moral vote against Murray, a nine-year city council veteran.
2000, B.C. Lions quarterback Damon Allen broke Ron Lancaster's alltime
CFL pass yardage record of 50,535 yards. Allen broke the record during
a win over Hamilton, the team coached by Lancaster. He retired in 2008
with 72,381, making him, at the time, the all-time leader in pro
football history. (Montreal Alouettes quarterback Anthony Calvillo surpassed Allen on Oct. 10, 2011.)
2003, MPs approved legislation paving the way for limited use of human
embryos in medical research. The measure was part of a wide-ranging
bill that would also regulate human assisted reproduction and ban human
In 2005, U.S. financier Jerry Zucker launched a $1.1 billion bid to take over the Hudson's Bay Co.
2006, rallies and marches were held in several Canadian cities to press
for the withdrawal of Canadian troops from Afghanistan.
former world and Canadian heavyweight boxing champion Trevor Berbick,
who once beat Muhammad Ali, was murdered in Jamaica. He was 52.
2009, Lt. Justin Boyes, 26, was killed by an improvised explosive
device in Afghanistan's Panjwaii district. Boyes belonged to the 3rd
Battalion Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry based in Edmonton.
2010, Nissan announced it was recalling 2.14 million vehicles in the
U.S., Japan, Europe and Asia for an ignition problem that may stall the
In 2010, Britain's foreign spy agency chief John Sawers
became the first director of MI6 to give a public address, on a topic
tinged with irony - the need for secrecy.