In 2000, onlookers erupted into “O Canada” as former prime minister Pierre Trudeau's coffin arrived in Montreal for a state funeral and burial, escorted by his sons after a historic train ride from Ottawa. Thousands of people lined the railroad crossings and stations to offer a final tribute. About 75,000 people paid their respects to Trudeau over three days of visitation in Ottawa and Montreal.

 

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In 322 BC, Greek philosopher Aristotle died.

 

In 1535, French explorer Jacques Cartier explored the St. Lawrence River to Hochelaga, present site of Montreal.

 

In 1608, the first telescope was demonstrated by Hans Lippershey of Middelburg, Holland.

 

In 1754, the inaugural session of the first Supreme Court in English Canada was held at Halifax.

In 1758, the first elected assembly in Canada met at Halifax. Charles Lawrence, then governor of Nova Scotia, wanted to encourage immigration but critics argued that New Englanders would hesitate to immigrate unless guaranteed an assembly that would give them a say in the governing process and protect their rights.

In 1780, Maj. John Andre was hanged as a British spy by George Washington during the Revolutionary War.

In 1804, England mobilized to resist possible invasion by Napoleon's French army.

In 1847, telegraph service opened between Montreal and Quebec City.

In 1869, Mahatma Gandhi, the architect of India's independence, was born at Porbandar. He was assassinated on Jan. 30, 1948.

In 1870, Rome was declared the Italian capital after the city and its provinces were formally made part of Italy.

In 1871, American Mormon leader Brigham Young was arrested for “cohabitating” with 16 young women.

In 1883, a women's medical college was founded at Queen's University in Kingston, Ont., by Dr. Jennie Trout, the first Canadian woman to be licensed to practise medicine in Canada.

In 1895, much of Canada's Far North was formed into the provisional districts of Mackenzie, Yukon, Ungava and Franklin. Yukon became a territory in 1897. The remaining area was divided in 1918 into the districts of Mackenzie, Keewatin and Franklin, now the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.

In 1914, Sir William Howard Hearst became premier of Ontario.

In 1920, the Pittsburgh Pirates and the Cincinnati Reds played major league baseball's last triple header. Cincinnati won the first two games 13-7 and 7-3. Pittsburgh was leading the third 6-0 when darkness set in.

In 1940, “The Empress of Britain,” en route to Canada with child evacuees, was sunk by a German submarine, but British warships rescued most of the 634 crew and passengers. “The Empress,” which had been converted into a troop ship during the Second World War, was the largest liner sunk during the conflict.

In 1942, the British cruiser “HMS Curacao” sank with the loss of 335 lives after it collided with the liner “Queen Mary” off Britain. The “Queen Mary,” which was converted into a troop ship during the Second World War, was heading for Clydebank, Scotland, when it struck the “Curacao” and sliced her in two. The cruiser had been assigned to escort the “Queen Mary” into Clydebank from the North Atlantic when the collision occurred.

In 1944, Nazi troops crushed the two-month-old “Warsaw Uprising,” during which a quarter of a million people were killed.

In 1949, the Soviet Union recognized the Chinese Communist government in Peking.

In 1950, “Peanuts” -- Charles M. Schulz's cartoon strip featuring Charlie Brown -- first appeared. It was to have been called “L'il Folks,” but the syndication agency United Features insisted it be changed to the name by which it became known worldwide.

In 1955, the Canadian Unemployment Act went into effect.

In 1958, the African country of Guinea was proclaimed a republic independent from France. European traders first came to the Guinean coast in the 15th century and France originally began proclaimed an area as its protectorate in 1849.

In 1960, the first Canadian conference on children was held at St. Adele, Que.

In 1968, Jean-Jacques Bertrand became Union Nationale premier of Quebec, following the death of Daniel Johnson.

In 1972, Denmark voted to join the European Economic Community.

In 1980, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau announced plans to unilaterally patriate the British North America Act and give Canada its own constitution, even without provincial consent.

In 1985, a joint American-French expedition announced it had found the wreckage of the “Titanic,” the British luxury liner that hit an iceberg on its maiden voyage and sank in the North Atlantic on April 14, 1912, with the loss of 1,513 lives.

In 1988, the Summer Olympic Games ended in Seoul. Canada finished 19th overall with 10 medals.

In 1991, Senator Hazen Argue, 70, Canada's longest-serving parliamentarian, died in Regina.

In 1996, Robert Bourassa, premier of Quebec from 1970 to 1976 and 1985 to 1994, died in Montreal at age 63.

In 2000, for the first time, Britain adopted an official Human Rights Act.

In 2001, Swissair, long considered one of the world's premier airlines, was grounded after filing for bankruptcy protection.

In 2001, Nortel Networks Corp. said it would slash another 19,500 jobs and post a quarterly loss of $3.6 billion. It named current chief financial officer Frank Dunn as new chief executive to replace John Roth.

In 2001, NATO members agreed for the first time in their 52-year history to invoke a joint defence clause known as “Article 5,” which said that an attack on one member state from abroad was an attack on all members.

In 2003, a report by American chief weapons inspector David Kay said that after extensive searches, no weapons of mass destruction had been found in Iraq.

In 2003, two Canadian soldiers, Sergeant Robert Alan Short and Corporal Robbie Christopher Beerenfenger, died after their jeep was rocked by a landmine not far from their Camp Julien base near Kabul, Afghanistan.

In 2003, the Liberal Party led by Dalton McGuinty won a sweeping majority in the Ontario election, ending eight years of Conservative rule. Liberals won 72 of 103 seats and PC 24. The NDP won just seven seats, one below what it needed to retain official party status.

In 2003, South African writer John Maxwell Coetzee won the Nobel Prize for literature.

In 2003, North Korea said that it had completed reprocessing its 8,000 spent nuclear fuel rods and was using plutonium extracted from them to make atomic bombs.

In 2005, a glass-enclosed tour boat capsized suddenly in Lake George, in upstate New York, killing 21 seniors.

In 2006, a 32-year-old milk truck driver took young girls hostage at an Amish community school in Pennsylvania, killing five before committing suicide. The schoolhouse was later razed.

In 2008, Steve Fossett vanished on a solo flight over California's rugged Sierra Nevada. Searchers found the wreckage of his plane but no body inside. (Fossett's remains were discovered in late Oct. 2008.)

In 2009, the International Olympic Committee awarded the 2016 Summer Olympics to Rio de Janeiro, putting the Games in South America for the first time.

In 2009, Robert J. Halderman, a producer for the CBS true-crime show “48 Hours,” was indicted in an extortion plot against David Letterman, who was forced to acknowledge sexual relationships with female staffers on his “Late Night” show after the man tried to allegedly blackmail him for $2 million. Halderman pleaded guilty in March, 2010 to attempted grand larceny and was later sentenced to six months in jail.