In 1918, Canadian and British troops stormed the Canal du Nord, the last section of the Germans' defensive “Hindenburg Line,” leading to the end of the First World War. The Canadians captured more than 7,000 prisoners and 205 heavy guns. Outflanked, the Germans abandoned the line and continued their retreat to the east. An armistice was signed on Nov. 11.

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In 1540, through the encyclical Regimini militantis ecclesiae, Roman Catholic Pope Paul III officially approved the Society of Jesus, a body of priests organized by Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 for missionary work. Today, the Jesuits are one of the largest Catholic teaching orders.

In 1722, Samuel Adams, the American politician whose activities against the British earned him the title Father of the American Revolution, was born in Boston.


In 1727, the “Rhode Island Gazette” was first printed and published by James Franklin.

In 1777, British Gen. William Howe and his troops occupied Philadelphia during the American War of Independence.

In 1825, the first locomotive to haul a passenger train was operated by George Stephenson in England.

In 1854, the American steamship “Arctic” collided with the French steamer “Vesta” in thick fog in the Atlantic and sank near Cape Race, Nfld., with 300 people onboard. As a result of the disaster, safety features such as side lighting on ships were made compulsory.

In 1858, the Grand Trunk Railway was completed from London to Stratford in Ontario.

In 1905, a woman was arrested in New York City for smoking a cigarette in a car.

In 1922, King Constantine of Greece abdicated.

In 1937, the Golden Gate Bridge opened in San Francisco.

In 1938, the “S.S. Queen Elizabeth” was launched at Glasgow, Scotland.

In 1940, Japan joined the Axis powers in the Second World War.

In 1959, almost 5,000 people were killed as typhoon Vera battered the Japanese island of Honshu. The storm, believed to be the worst in Japanese history, left 1.5 million people homeless.

In 1964. the Warren Commission issued its report, concluding that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy.

In 1967, the transatlantic British liner “Queen Mary” docked -- for the last time -- at Long Beach, Calif., and became a floating hotel and museum.

In 1969, a military coup in Bolivia overthrew the civilian government of president Luis Adolfo Siles Salinas.

In 1978, the Israeli Knesset, or parliament, opened debate on the Camp David accords with Egypt. The Knesset later voted 84-19 to endorse the agreement, although Prime Minister Menachem Begin was accused of betraying Israel by members of his own Likud coalition. The agreement had been reached after 13 days of talks at Camp David, Md., between Begin and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and led to a formal peace treaty signed in March, 1979 between the two countries.

In 1982, “L'Evangeline,” the only French-language newspaper east of Quebec, published its last issue.

In 1988, three days after placing first in the men's 100-metre dash at the Seoul Summer Olympics, Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson left for home in disgrace, stripped of his gold medal by officials who said Johnson had used anabolic steroids.

In 1989, Jeff Petkovich and Peter DeBernardi became the first two-man team to survive a barrel drop over Niagara's Horseshoe Falls.

In 1990, the Dalai Lama, the spiritual leader of six million Tibetan Buddhists, arrived in Toronto on a four-day visit.

In 1990, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney made a last-ditch effort to move the controversial goods and services tax legislation through the Liberal-dominated Senate. Drawing on a never-before-used section of the constitution, Mulroney received permission from the Queen to increase the size of the Upper House to 112 members from 104. Mulroney filled the new seats with GST backers, saying the action was necessary to prevent the non-elected Senate from overriding the will of the elected House of Commons. The bill was passed and the GST kicked in on January 1st, 1991.

In 1991, U.S. President George Bush announced sweeping cutbacks in nuclear weapons including the elimination of all land-based nuclear weapons from Europe and the removal of short-range systems from ships and submarines. A week later, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev responded with a sweeping cut to nuclear weapons and a pledge to eliminate Soviet battlefield nuclear arms.

In 1994, the last U.S. military base in Canada -- a submarine detection base in Argentia, Nfld. -- was closed.

In 1998, Phil Hartman's voice was featured for the last time on “The Simpsons” as Troy McClure. Hartman was killed by his wife in a murder-suicide the previous May.

In 1999, Tiger Stadium closed in grand fashion after 87 years as the Detroit Tigers beat the Kansas City Royals, 8-2.

In 1999, David Cronenberg won the Governor General's Performing Arts Award.

In 1999, the Indonesian military handed over control of East Timor to an international military force, marking the beginning of the end of 25 years of its oppressive rule.

In 2000, Canadians Sebastien Lareau and Daniel Nestor defeated Australia's Mark Woodforde and Todd Woodbridge to win the men's doubles tennis gold medal at the Sydney Olympics.

In 2005, Michaelle Jean, 48, was installed as the 27th Governor General of Canada. She was the first black woman to serve as Canada's head of state and one of the youngest to hold the office.

In 2007, NASA's spacecraft “Dawn” was launched from Cape Canaveral in Florida to begin its eight-year journey in space to study asteroids.

In 2009, the first episode of the 21st season of “The Simpsons” aired, making it the longest-running American prime-time scripted entertainment program, surpassing “Gunsmoke.” The series was already the longest-running American sitcom and the longest-running American animated program.

In 2009, Philadelphia Eagles backup quarterback Michael Vick played in his first regular-season NFL game since he was sent to prison for his role in operating a dogfighting ring. Vick participated in 11 plays, accounting for 30 total yards. The former Atlanta Falcons star was released from federal custody July 20th after serving 18 months of a 23-month sentence.

In 2009, German voters re-elected Chancellor Angela Merkel, earning her a centre-right majority and handing the left-wing Social Democrats their worst parliamentary defeat since the Second World War.

In 2010, New Brunswick voters elected David Alward's Conservatives to a solid majority government, ousting Premier Shawn Graham's Liberals after a single term marred by backtracking on key decisions that ran afoul of public opinion. The Tories were elected in 42 of the province's 55 ridings with the Liberals taking the rest.

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